Harley Evolution

  • Harley-Davidson Shovelhead and Evolution Big Twins 1970 – 1999Haynes Owners Service and Repair …

  • Hardcover – 270 pages – Harley-Davidson Shovelhead and Evolution Big Twins 1970 – 1999 Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual Covers the following Models: FL FLH FLHS 1200cc 1970 – 1980 FX FXE FXS FXEF 1200cc 1970 – 1980 FLT FLTC/U FLH FLHF FLHR FLHS FLHT FLHTC/U 1340cc 1978 – 1999 FXR FXRS FXRS-SP FXRS-CONV FXLR FXRD FXRT 1340cc 1982 – 1999 FXB FXD FXE FXDG FXDL FXDWG FXDS-CONV FXEF FXS FXSB FXWG FXST FXSTC FXSTS FLST FLST-SP FLSTC FLSTF FLSTN 1340cc 1979 – 1999 FXD FXDB FXDC FXDL FXDS-CONV FXDWG 1340cc 1991 – 1998Please note: This manual DOES NOT include police models.Contents: Living With Your HARLEY-DAVIDSON BIG TWINIntroduction: Miwaukee magic; Ackowledgements; About this manual; Identification numbers: buying spare parts; deco
  • Harley-Davidson FLH, FLT, FXR Evolution 1984 – 1998Clymer Owners Service and Repair Manual

  • Softcover – 924 pages – Harley Davidson FLH FLT FXR Evolution 1984 – 1998 Clymer Owners Service Repair Manual Covers the following Models: FLHR Road King (1995-1998) FLHR-I Road King (1996-1997) FLHRC-I Road King (1998) FLHS Electra Glide Sport (1988-1993) FLHT Electra Glide (1995-1998) FLHTC Electra Glide Classic Anniversary (1984-1998) FLHTC-I Electra Glide Classic (1996-1998) FLHTC-U Electra Glide Classic-Ultra Anniversary (1989-1997) FLHTC-UI Electra Glide Classic-Ultra Anniversary (1996-1998) FLTC Tour Glide (1984-1991) FLTC-U Tour Glide-Ultra Classic (1989-1995) FLTC-UI Tour Glide-Ultra Classic (1996) FLTR Road Glide (1998) FLTR-I Road Glide (1998) FXEF Fat Bob (1985) FXLR Low Rider Custom Anniversary (1987-1994) FXR Super Glide (1986-1994) FXR2 FXR3 Super Glide ( Limited edition models available only in 1999) FXRD Super Glide Grand Touring (1986) FXRS Low Rider Convertible (1984-1992) FXRS-Con Low Rider-Convertible (1991-1993) FXRS-SP Low Rider-Sport Edition (1988-1993) FXRT Sport Glide (1984-1992) FXSB Low Rider (1985) FXWG Wide Gli
  • Harley-Davidson FXD Evolution 1991 – 1998 Clymer Owners Service and Repair Manual

  • Softcover – 534 pages – Harley-Davidson FXD Evolution 1991 – 1998 Service Repair Manual Covers the following Models: FXDB Dyna Glide (1991-1992) FXDC Dyna Custom (1992) FXDL Dyna Low Rider (1993-1998) FXDWG Wide Glide (1993-1998) FXD Dyna Super Glide (1995-1998) FXDS-CONV Dyna Low Rider Convertible (1995-1998)Contents: QUICK REFERENCE DATA GENERAL INFORMATIONManual organization / Notes cautions and warnings / Safety first / Service hints / Serial Numbers / Parts replacement / Torque specifications / Fasteners / Lubricants / Sealants cements and cleaners / Expendable supplies / Basic hand tools / Test equipment / Measuring tools / Special tools / Mechanic TROUBLESHOOTINGOperating requirements / Troubleshooting instr

The Evolution engine (popularly called Evo) is an air-cooled, 45-degree, V-twin engine constructed from 1984 by Harley-Davidson for business’s motorbikes. It was made in the 1,340 cc (82 cu in) displacement for Harley-Davidson Big V-twins bicycles, changing the Shovelhead engine until 2000 whenever last EVO is placed in a production factory custom FXR4 (FXR2 and FXR3 had been initial CVO’s). In 1999, it had been replaced by the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam 88 inside Touring and Dyna model as well as in 2000 when you look at the Softail products. Furthermore for sale in the Sportster model starting in 1986, it had been produced in the 1,100 cc (67 cu in) displacement until 1988 and is still made in the 883 cc (53.9 cu in) and 1,200 cc (73 cu in) displacements for Harley-Davidson Sportster, replacing the ironhead Sportster engine.

In period involving the two world wars a big valve included perspective of 90-100 levels ended up being considered essential since it made room inside combustion chamber for very large valves. This is planning specially important in long-stroke motors whose little bores would otherwise restrict device dimensions. But period change—valuable perform by airflow professionals like Jerry department, Kenny Augustine, yet others had significantly enhanced the circulation that will move across small valves. Because their services additionally boosted intake velocity, movement had the energy to continue streaming into the cylinders after bottom center. In this manner, small valves, set at lower included angles, became capable supply more atmosphere compared to bigger valves of previous styles.

For this reason the old application of “hogging aside” intake and exhaust harbors results in less torque and energy. Today’s modest ports become that size for grounds.

Another way to reduce temperature flow into piston and head will be speed up burning, shortening the full time publicity of the metal section to burning flame. Fire try spread from the sparkplug outward by fast, turbulent motion regarding the fuel-air mixture—motion created initially by high intake velocity. To “refresh” that movement whilst the piston nears TDC, one side of each combustion chamber ended up being filled-in to be extremely near the piston crown at top center. Blend between piston and mind are rapidly squeezed out of this squish location, creating a jet that stirs and accelerates the burning process.

One other prime supply of cylinder mind home heating could be the exhaust slot, which best problems for super-fast temperatures transfer exist; exceptionally hot fumes, moving at high speed, in a turbulent condition. Sometime ago, temperatures movement experiments revealed that half the warmth found because of the cylinder mind originates from the exhaust slot. That getting therefore, Evo’s fatigue harbors were deliberately made as short that you can.

The general motion of cylinders was accepted as a given of V-twin procedure, and so the Evo system’s intake Y-manifold ended up being built to slip into flexible rubberized couplings from the cylinders. Pratt & Whitney must make versatile intake contacts upon it 28-cylinder R-4360 radial, after prototypes tore their particular intake contacts to pieces.

Which will make engine-in-frame repair feasible, the rocker frame, their spacer, and cap were made as layers thin adequate to be slid laterally, out of under the frame rails. To really make it furthermore feasible to remove the minds, these people were fastened to the through men with bolts equal long into head’s depth. With these bolts eliminated, the minds might be slid laterally and eliminated as well.

A significant Evo development goal is capability to resist a 100-hour full-throttle test. Evo system assessment totaled 5600 hours, road testing 750,000 kilometers. Featuring its brand new soothing potential, oil-tightness, and mechanical integrity, these machines could routinely become ridden coast-to-coast.
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Harley-Davidson traditions Softail studio side view

Due to Harley-Davidson

Harley-Davidson traditions Softail.

1983 to prevent betting the farm on Evo, the shovel ended up being kept in manufacturing for a while. Early development heads were sand-cast in alloy 242 (the same utilized for the heads of wartime plane machines). This product, containing copper, nickel, and magnesium, forms difficult intermetallic substances whilst cools and ages, providing they outstanding hot power.

1984 marketing tend to be 38,741—up 31 percentage. Final solid-mounted Shovel machines leave the range June this season. 1340cc Evolution system in five brands are 20 pounds lighter than past.

1985 Final drives are enamel buckle today. At mid-year, the interim usage of sand-cast cylinder minds offered method to die-casting.

1986 brand new intake and exhaust methods consider paid down noise (crossover pipe in exhaust, for-instance). Connecting-rod big-end roller cages was aluminum but had been now turned to M-section plated steel cages. Cycle magazine dynos a Softail’s Evo motor, reading 56 hp at 5000 rpm, maximum torque of 69 lb.-ft. at 3000. Keep in mind to cyclists, torque just isn’t several but rather a sense. A “torquey” engine is one that draws equally highly at almost any rpm—it isn’t peaky. Peak torque are torque sized at its highest aim, but is torquey an engine has to have highest torque every-where.

1987 Harley problems initial public providing of stock. Keihin 38mm carburetor. Unique cams with 24 percentage less intake period, 28 percent less fatigue length of time, and 14 percent less carry. The cooler-running Evo engine ended up being planning capable tolerate considerably compression and was presented with 8.5:1 by 1987. Now there is no difficulties with working same ignition timing on forward and back cylinders (As mentioned by Vincent fashion designer Phil Irving inside the autobiography, a corner cylinder of an air-cooled V-twin works hotter versus front. To prevent they from detonating it was typical to retard the timing associated with the back cylinder). As calculated by sparkplug washer thermocouple, an Evo engine works 75 degrees F colder than a shovel under the same circumstances.

Evo oils stress light could flicker on hot times (indicating oils viscosity reduction).
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Harley-Davidson bike at New York Stock Exchange.

Due to Harley-Davidson

Harley-Davidson noted on New York Stock Market

1988 Keihin 38mm butterfly carbohydrate continues, as do 8.5:1 compression. Oils capability was 3 quarts. Dyno result try 55 hp, 69.4 lb.-ft. of torque at 3000 rpm, latest 32 amp alternator.

An early on VR1000 (Harley’s Superbike racer) design incorporates a gerotor oil pump regarding crank, getting rid of bearings, a shaft, and drive gears. “Gerotor” stands for “generated rotor,” composed of two gear-like members—an outer one with inward-facing “teeth” (similar to lumps, actually) and an off-center internal rotor that drives it by complementary outward-facing “teeth.” Crank installation didn’t work with the VR because their large rpm triggered pump cavitation. But the idea ended up being remembered later on when it comes to P-22 (Twin-Cam) venture.

1989 brand new 1.6-hp starter, brand-new case, for faster hot-starting. Electronic cruise controls introduced. Carburetor happens to be Keihin CV (constant machine means), slips into rubber manifold instead of older two-bolt mounting.

1990 brand new clutch, 40mm Keihin.

1993 Harley-Davidson manufacturing this season is 85,000 products.

1995 gas shot becomes an option. Marelli EFI offered 1995-2001. Carburetor option is Keihin CVK40. A carburetor was a passive gasoline system—running high in warm weather and leaner in cooler weather. EFI continuously instantly readjusts gas blend responding to increasing or dropping barometer and temperature—just like a trackside competition tuner does, using bins of jets and needles.

The Harley-Davidson advancement V-twin delivers the business into a fresh age of prosperity and reputation for reliable overall performance.

Most experts consider the Evolution to-be the engine your spared the reorganized Harley-Davidson company from certain bankruptcy. Harley-Davidson’s official name the engine had been most likely related to the business’s make an effort to reform its picture following the 1981 control buyout from earlier holder American device and Foundry (AMF).

Both the heads and cylinders associated with the development system are produced from aluminum to cut back weight versus a cast-iron build. Atmosphere air conditioning effectiveness are improved as aluminum are an excellent thermal conductor to cast-iron. The blocky rocker cardboard boxes (therefore getting nicknamed “block head” which never caught on), aluminum minds and cylinders (also called “jugs”) would be the just area of the Evolution engine that can be said to be crucial; the major Twin and Sportster incarnations associated with development become substantially various.

The system construction associated with the Harley-Davidson Sportster, which includes essentially been unchanged since their inception as the side-valve 750cc “K” design in 1952, was retained with all the advancement engine upgrade in 1986, resulting in a unique valve train configuration. Unlike nearly every more engine in production these days, the Sportster Evolution utilizes one cam per motor overhead valve, resulting in four specific, single-lobe, gear-driven camshafts. The cam lobes were hence all located one behind another, and pushrods are arrayed in pairs (front and rear) parallel to your cylinder axis because of this. This permits each lifter and pushrod to deflect from cam lobes perpendicular into the lobe airplane. This setup is friendly to radical, high-output cams, making the Sportster advancement an all-natural choice for the as soon as Harley-Davidson had type of Buell bike team sportbikes from 1986 up to belated 2009 (2010 model season).

The Sportster development system possess remained mostly unchanged from 1986 to the current day, though changes on transmission, best drive and engine supports has necessitated changes into Sportster advancement situation. Building is practically completely the same between 883 cc and 1,200 cc versions; the main difference between both was a smaller sized bore on the 883 cc (inherited from its previous “ironhead” moms and dad), along side somewhat different heads. Conversions from 883 cc to 1,200 cc are relatively inexpensive and prevalent, and less expensive than the cost premium going from an 883 to 1,200 system on a unique bike. Carburetors are standard on Sportster engines until 2007, when they had been replaced because of the Delphi Electronic Sequential-Port gas shot (ESPFI) system.

A simplified derivative associated with motor had been used on the Buell Blast entry-level bike from 2000 to 2009. The Sportster engine as utilized on the Buell Blast was at many methods similar to the one utilized on Sportsters, albeit using back cylinder eliminated, as well as other concessions to cut back overall price and repair.
Development regarding big bicycles

The Evolution gigantic Twin saw a fifteen-year run-in Harley-Davidson’s Dyna, Softail, FXR, and Touring structures, although a limited range Evolutions were utilized when you look at the 2000 design year CVO FXR4, and 1999 FXR2 and FXR3 designs. Whilst the primary case was only somewhat modified from past Shovelhead engine, the most effective end had been notably enhanced.

The 1340cc advancement uses one, four-lobe, gear-driven camshaft operating just over the crankshaft axis. Although this simplifies camshaft replacement, it complicates the top Twin valve train with tappet/lifters and pushrods that each deflect from camshaft at extremely different perspectives. The top Twin pushrods need a distinct helical look since the straight jet formed by each cylinder’s rockers (front-to-back) is exactly perpendicular into the straight airplane created because of the cam lobes (left-to-right). The necessity for one lifter and pushrod set-to reach right out to the most outboard cam lobe provides rise to the Big Twin’s tell-tale offset lifter assemblies, where in fact the forward lifter set up is situated a little farther out and rotated to allow the device gear to really make the go.

The Big Twin has-been combined with several different biggest drives and transmissions, both on production Harley-Davidson motorcycles as well as in personalized programs. The aftermarket selection of add-ons for those closely associated techniques is broad, since it is for the engine itself.

The Evolution gigantic Twin motor had been, before the introduction of the Twin Cam engine, the very last regarding the type of single cam, overhead-valve motors tracing their lineage back into the seminal Knucklehead build penned by founder Bill Harley. It is also the largest aftermarket supported Harley-Davidson build, up to now, with clones of this engine becoming from 3rd parties like S&S period and many people. Harley reverted to one cam build using Milwaukee-Eight system, first introduced for touring brands in 2016.

Harley needed a brand new engine therefore more advanced than just what had opted before that their particular profile will be restored. It should be dependable, powerful, and cool-running, capable of further developing. It should incorporate little oil.

When you look at the shovel motor, since the aluminum mind started and broadened, it slid imperceptibly across the low-expansion iron cylinder, shearing and deteriorating the top gasket. Strobe research made in the dyno demonstrated the big inertia of the metal cylinders causing all of them to “walk” to their base gaskets. Therefore the cylinders of this brand-new Evolution motor is aluminum, with metal liners. Now heads, cylinders, and crankcase would all be aluminum, with alignment dowels to help keep all components from general motion, gasket problems and sealing would markedly improve.

An issue of past gigantic Twins ended up being piston fit and piston cooling. Because an aluminum piston expands more and efficient than an iron cylinder, it should be provided adequate approval. But piston cooling needed intimate contact between hot piston and cooler cylinder. This was a problem without an actual solution. But in following an aluminum cylinder regarding Evo engine, they became possible to operate at a great deal better piston approval — in examinations, Harley could actually maintain complete throttle procedure with approval as little as .0004 inches. Just How? To begin with, the aluminum cylinder expanded in step because of the piston, as soon as the piston made connection with the wall surface, the cooling effect of wide-area contact prevented further piston growth. They were German-made Mahle pistons, containing 12 % silicon to lessen growth. Manufacturing piston clearance is put at .0014 inches. The most notable piston ring was a chrome-plated barrel-face kind, the next ring a 2-degree taper face, therefore the oil scraper a three-piece kind.

Burning chambers were made shallower by an additional lowering of valve included perspective to 58 degrees (27 intake/31 exhaust). This, by decreasing the surface area of burning chamber and piston crown (today flat) furthermore cut the flow of temperature into those parts.

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